ERNiE: The Manual

The Encyclopedia of Romantic Nationalism in Europe is accessed in a browser at

Contents of this manual

  1. Top menu and search box; sorting the list view
  2. The Encyclopedia and its articles; The Bibliography; contributors
  3. Scenario buttons, view modes and visualizations
  4. Materials: Letters, Writings, Music, Paintings, Monuments, Sites, Currency, Exhibitions
  5. Making your own ERNiE selections
  6. Further references and information, copyright, feedback [this page]

Clarifications and feedback

ERNiE is dedicated to the critical study of nationalism; it aims to provide an enhanced understanding of that ideology in order to facilitate its critical analysis and deconstruction. The tenets and expressions of nationalism are displayed and discussed dispassionately, with due regard for their historical motivations, causes and intentions, and in as neutral a form as possible, as befits academic scholarship; however, this does in no way imply any endorsement of an ideology which SPIN considers deeply problematic and often pernicious.

ERNiE is an ongoing project.

  1. Encyclopedia articles that are added or significantly changed vis-à-vis the book version of 2018 are noted as such and a scenario in the website’s Encyclopedia section will display these as a “Supplement to the book version”. Further features are in development, such as a cumulated searchable bibliography of secondary literature.
  2. SPIN is constantly endeavouring to expand and complete, as far as is feasible, the Materials illustrative of Romantic Nationalism in Europe. If you can think of any relevant Materials or of themes/persons for inclusion in the Encyclopedia, please bring these to our notice. You can use the Online Feedback Form at
  3. We would also be most grateful if you bring errors or misprints to our notice. The Feedback Form can be used for this as well.

Thank you!

How to cite

Materials may only be quoted or reproduced with full source referencing following established academic standards, stating author’s name, article title, ERNiE’s bibliographical details (Encyclopedia of Romantic Nationalism in Europe, online version, ed. Joep Leerssen. Amsterdam: Study Platform on Interlocking Nationalisms, 2015), followed by article version and URL, and date of retrieval.
The website as a whole is to be referred to as Encyclopedia of Romantic Nationalism in Europe, ed. Joep Leerssen,


The Encyclopedia of Romantic Nationalism in Europe (ERNiE) is a collaborative scholarly effort involving hundreds  of contributors from dozens of countries; for a complete name-list, click here.

Cookie policy, privacy, and communicating with SPIN

This website keeps track of the number of unique hits and places cookies needed to ensure interactivity. SPIN does not harvest user details, nor do we gather information about your client-end settings or search/browsing behaviour. Only in the interactive parts of the SPIN website (the contact and feedback forms), SPIN will ask for your name and e-mail address; these are for direct communication purposes only, and no other information is asked for. SPIN will not pass on any user data to third parties. Once a month, SPIN sends brief e-mail newsflashes informing the ERNiE community of updates and new features; you can opt in or opt out of this by means of the Online Contact Form at

Copyright claims and disclaimers

ERNiE is Open-Source. While SPIN and the article authors assert their intellectual ownership of the Encyclopedia and its articles, ERNiE is made available under Creative Commons license BY-NC-ND. Material is made available free of charge and may be printed for private use or for the purposes of teaching and academic research. No commercial use is intended or allowed. The authorship of ERNiE and its articles must be duly acknowledged by source references.

  • The textual, visual and auditory primary documentation reproduced here is considered to reside in the public domain by virtue of its age; wherever possible, the reproductions of pictorial and textual materials have been gathered from non-profit public-domain repositories such as Wikimedia Commons or
  • Photographs of statues and other three-dimensional objects are either from SPIN’s own imagebank or from public-domain repositories.
  • Audio fragments of performed music are either taken from public-domain repositories and/or considered, by virtue of their brevity and non-commercial, scholarly-illustrative deployment, to fall under the rubric of Fair Use or the Dutch citaatrecht.

ERNiE and all materials on this website are curated by the Study Platform on Interlocking Nationalisms (SPIN). SPIN presents all these materials in good faith as illustrations of patterns requiring academic, scholarly analysis.
As per the Creative Commons License under which this material is made available, SPIN does not itself claim copyright on these materials, and does not condone copyright claims being made on these materials by third parties appropriating or reproducing them. No commercial use is intended or allowed; nor is there any intention to harm any interest of such potential copyright owners as may exist unbeknownst to us.

SPIN has taken due care in ensuring that no property rights have been infringed; SPIN kindly invites anyone feeling that they hold copyright or property rights to the materials presented here and/or to their reproduction, to make themselves known to SPIN through the contact details given on the SPIN website.